Rectangular patch antenna geometry and parameters

Pramod J Deore was born in He received a B. Degree in Electron- ics and Telecommunication and M. His area of interest includes Robust control, Biometric systems, Microstrip antenna design etc. He is a life mem- ber of ISTE. Jagadish B Jadhav was born in Degree in Electron- ics Engineering in and M. Degree in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering from Dr. He is currently pursuing Ph.

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His area of interest includes transceiver front end passive components design, compact planar antennas for wire-less, Digital signal processing etc. He is a life member of ISTE. Prashant S Mahajan was born in Microstrip antennas are the most suited for aerospace and mobile applications because of their low profile, light weight and low power handling capacity. These antennas can be designed in a variety of shapes in order to obtain enhanced gain and bandwidth for dual band and tri-band operation.

The design parameters of the antenna calculated using the transmission line model. Antenna is a metallic device as rod or a wire for radiating or receiving radio waves. It is a mean of transmitting and receiving radio waves. In another words antenna is transition structure between free space and guided device. The guided device or the transmission line may take the form of the coaxial line or a hollow pipe waveguideand is used to transport the electromagnetic energy from the transmitting source to the antenna or from antenna to the receiver.

RF and microwave technologies are rapidly finding their way into commercial applications. Industrial applications such as satellite data transfer, vehicle tracking and paging systems have been among the first to be developed. The intelli- gent vehicle highway of the future will guide us through traffic jams and systems using Global Positioning System GPS will tell us about our location.

From being a tech- nology that had its utilization mainly in telecommunications and radar applications, it is today the forefront technology used for wireless applications.

The market for wireless applications is expanding and this in turn is constantly driv- ing the demand for a plenty of RF products with increased functionality and inte- gration. As a consequence, recent years have seen rapid changes in RF techniques as well as technology. This trend is continuing enabling the use of increasingly higher RF frequencies with their inherent advantages of smaller component size and larger bandwidth.

In particular, the use of planar circuit architecture has opened up new opportunities in terms of reduction in weight, volume, power consumption as well as extension of operating frequencies. Microstrip design is a new era which satis- fies all above requirements. A microstrip antenna consists of conducting patch on a ground plane separated by dielectric substrate.

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This concept was undeveloped until the revolution in electronic circuit miniaturization and large-scale integration in After that many authors have described the radiation from the ground plane by a dielectric substrate for different configurations.

The early work of Munson 2 on microstrip antennas for use as a low profile flush mounted antennas on rockets and missiles showed that this was a practical concept for use in many antenna system problems.

Various mathematical models were developed for this antenna and its appli- cations were extended to many other fields. The number of papers, articles published in the journals for the last ten years, on these antennas shows the importance gained by them.

Low dielec- tric constant substrate materials are generally preferred for maximum radiation. The conducting patch can take any shape but rectangular and circular configurations are the most commonly used configuration. Other configurations are complex to analyze and require heavy numerical computations. A microstrip antenna is characterized by its length, width, input impedance, and radiation patterns.

The antenna substrate comes in various dielectric constants that can reduce the antenna size. A simple patch antenna is composed of a single ground plane at the bottom, a single substrate in the middle, and the top copper patch layer.Charles U. NdujiubaOluwafemi A. IlesanmiOboyerulu E. All Rights Reserved. In this paper, variation of the antenna parameters with the dimensions of an edge cut of an inset fed rectangular patch antenna with a partial ground was studied.

Antenna parameters like the gain return loss and VSWR. Regular rectangular patch antenna with the ground plane reduced to half and symmetrically position around the feed point was designed and simulated using HFSS software. The partial ground was kept constant while the shape of the radiating patch was modified using different edge cut geometry.

Modeling and Analysis of Single Layer Multi-band U-Slot Patch Antenna

This was designed at an operating frequency of 3GHz, with FR4 of dielectric constant 4. The result obtained shows that antenna parameters show noticeable improvement when the width of the edge cut is more than the length of the edge cut. Cite this paper: Charles U. Ndujiuba, Oluwafemi A.

ISM Band Patch Microstrip Antennas and Mutually Coupled Patches

Ilesanmi, Oboyerulu E. Article Outline 1. Introduction 2. Design and Methodology 3. Result and Analysis 4. Introduction The concept of microstrip radiators was first put forward by Deschamps inbut was never practically realized until in the s, when researchers like Robert E.

rectangular patch antenna geometry and parameters

Munson and the rest took further steps to develop it using low-loss soft substrate materials that were just becoming available. Microstrip antennas are planar resonant cavities that radiate as a result of fringing fields around it edges attaining peak efficiency when its impedance is matched [1].

Microstrip patch antennas are the most versatile and commonest form of etched antennas. They have a lot of advantages when compared with other types of conventional antennas and hence have wide area of applications like mobile and satellite communication, global positioning system and radar application to mention a few.

The simplest form of microstrip patch antenna is made up of a dielectric substrate sandwiched between a metallic radiating patch at one end and a ground plane at the other end with a feeding point. The radiating patch is made of a conducting material which can be copper or gold and can be fed using any of the different feeding techniques.

Patch antennas come in different shapes like: rectangular, square, circular, elliptical and triangle and their sizes depend on the thickness of the substrate. The most popular of these are the rectangular and the circular patch antennas and both have a wide radiation patterns.

However, other shapes like those based on fractal genetic have been used in the design of microstrip patches [8]. According to [8], E shaped fractal patch antenna was designed for multiband application to cover the S band of the LTE, though using multilayered substrate which will definitely increase the size of the antenna. The need for multiband miniaturized antennas for our present day wireless application has given rise to various methods of designing microstrip patch antennas.

One of these methods is by using fractal geometry. The fractal self-similarity characteristic can be used for multiband resonator application [9]. One of the most popular fractal geometry in use is the Gasket Sierpinski. According to [10], a Gasket Sierpinski has a base shape of an equilateral triangle and various heights of the triangle were used to achieve various frequency bands. Stacked sierpinski has also been used to further improve the multiband feature of a patch antenna.

The larger the size of the ground plane, the better the performance of the patch antenna [2]. But using a large ground plane will make the antenna unsuitable for portable and mobile applications. This is the reason for the reduction in the size of the ground plane and is made up for by cutting the edge of the radiating patch.Antennas List Antenna Theory. All of the parameters in a rectangular patch antenna design LWhpermittivity control the properties of the antenna.

As such, this page gives a general idea of how the parameters affect performance, in order to understand the design process. First, the length of the patch L controls the resonant frequency as seen here. This is true in general, even for more complicated microstrip antennas that weave around - the length of the longest path on the microstrip controls the lowest frequency of operation. The wider the patch becomes the lower the input impedance is.

rectangular patch antenna geometry and parameters

The permittivity of the substrate controls the fringing fields - lower permittivities have wider fringes and therefore better radiation. Decreasing the permittivity also increases the antenna's bandwidth. The efficiency is also increased with a lower value for the permittivity.

The impedance of the antenna increases with higher permittivities. Higher values of permittivity allow a "shrinking" of the patch antenna. Particularly in cell phones, the designers are given very little space and want the antenna to be a half-wavelength long. One technique is to use a substrate with a very high permittivity. Equation 1 above can be solved for L to illustrate this: Hence, if the permittivity is increased by a factor of 4, the length required decreases by a factor of 2.

Using higher values for permittivity is frequently exploited in antenna miniaturization. The height of the substrate h also controls the bandwidth - increasing the height increases the bandwidth. The fact that increasing the height of a patch antenna increases its bandwidth can be understood by recalling the general rule that "an antenna occupying more space in a spherical volume will have a wider bandwidth".

This is the same principle that applies when noting that increasing the thickness of a dipole antenna increases its bandwidth. Increasing the height also increases the efficiency of the antenna. Increasing the height does induce surface waves that travel within the substrate which is undesired radiation and may couple to other components.

The following equation roughly describes how the bandwidth scales with these parameters:.DOI : Background: Modern communication devices are very much dependent on the operation of low profile antennas. The objective of this paper is to perform the design and simulation of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna at a resonant frequency of 9.

Methods: Design of the antenna is given with various substrates like FR4, Teflon and Ceramic substrates at the desired frequency.

Rectangular Patch Antenna design Step by Step in 15 min with HFSS Last version (2020)

Conclusion: Performance characteristics of the antenna with three different substrates are compared to identify the substrate that provides the accurate return loss and VSWR.

Abstract: Background: Modern communication devices are very much dependent on the operation of low profile antennas. The objective of this paper is to perform th Volume 12Issue 4 Journal Home. Graphical Abstract: Abstract: Background: Modern communication devices are very much dependent on the operation of low profile antennas. Dafalla, W.

Kuan, A. Rahman, and S. Selangor, Malaysia, Wasiq, S. Gupta, V. Chandra, and V. Varsheney, "A review on different shapes of patch antennas", Int. B Saisandeep, "and S.

Kashyap, Design and simulation of microstrip patch array antenna for wireless communications at 2. Sharma, B. Bhushan, S. Gupta, and P.Documentation Help Center. The standard rectangular microstrip patch is a narrowband antenna and provides dBi Gain with linear polarization. This example based on the work done in [1],[2], models a broadband patch antenna using a slot in the radiator and develops a dual-band and a tri-band variation from it.

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In the process, the single wide response has been split into multiple narrow band regions catering to specific bands in the WiMAX standard. These patch antennas have been probe-fed.

Define Parameters The basic U-slot patch antenna consists of a rectangular patch radiator within which a U-shaped slot has been cut out. As discussed in [1], the patch itself is on an air substrate and thick so as to enable higher bandwidths to be achieved.

The presence of the slot structure achieves additional capacitance within the structure which combines with the inductance of the long probe feed to create a double resonance within the band. The geometry parameters based on [2] are defined and shown in a drawing below. Boolean subtraction operation is used among the shape primitives for this purpose.

Create the ground plane shape for the antenna. The groundplane in this case is rectangular and 71 mm x 52 mm in size. Use the pcbStack to define the metal and dielectric layers and the feed for the single U-slot patch antenna. The layers are defined top-down. In this case, the top-most layer is a metal layer defined by the U-slot patch shape.

The second layer is a dielectric material, air in this case, and the third layer is the metal ground plane. Mesh the structure by using a maximum edge length which is one-tenth the wavelength at the highest frequency of operation which is 6 GHz for this example.

Compute and plot the reflection coefficient for this antenna over the band. The reflection coefficient is plotted with a reference impedance of 50 ohms. To achieve dual-band behavior as shown in [1], [2], the double resonance is modified such that the two contributing resonances, i. To do so the existing slot parameters are adjusted and a second slot is introduced into the structure. The parameters for the double U-slot are listed below as per [2] and a figure annotated with the variables used is shown.

Mesh the structure at the highest frequency of operation and calculate the reflection coefficient. For triple-band operation a third U-slot is introduced and the existing slot parameters are adjusted. The parameters are shown below based on [2]. The models of the multi-band single layer U-slot patch antenna as discussed in [1], and [2] have been built and analyzed and agree well with results reported.

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rectangular patch antenna geometry and parameters

This example shows how to design and implement a rectangular, circular, triangular and elliptical patch microstrip antennas complying with the ISM Industrial Scientific and Medical band.

All these microstrip antennas consisting of PCB with 6.

Modeling and Analysis of Single Layer Multi-band U-Slot Patch Antenna

Design a probe feed patchMicrostripElliptical antenna using a dimension of The feed is offset by Create a patchMicrostripElliptical antenna using the defined parameters. Design a probe feed patchMicrostripCircular antenna using a dimension of 16 mm Radius. The feed is offset by 9. Create a patchMicrostripCircular antenna using the defined parameters. Design a probe-fed rectangular patchMicrostrip antenna using a dimension of The feed is offset by 5.

Create a patchMicrostrip rectangular antenna using the defined parameters.

rectangular patch antenna geometry and parameters

Design an equilateral patchMicrostripTriangular antenna using a dimension of The feed is offset by 3. Plot the reflection coefficient for these antennas over the band and a reference impedance of 50 ohms. Curves for the reflection coefficient magnitude are shown in the below figure. Manually mesh of patch antennas with different edge lengths.

The directivity of the antennas are around 6. This section is devoted to the study of cases, focusing on configurations with the lowest mutual couplings. Create a patchMicrostripTriangular antenna using the defined parameters. Use the pcbStack to define the metal and dielectric layers for mutually coupled patch antenna. A modified version of this example exists on your system.

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